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Re: use-after-free on log replay failure

To: Dave Chinner <david@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Subject: Re: use-after-free on log replay failure
From: Brian Foster <bfoster@xxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Wed, 13 Aug 2014 19:21:35 -0400
Cc: Alex Lyakas <alex@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>, xfs@xxxxxxxxxxx
Delivered-to: xfs@xxxxxxxxxxx
In-reply-to: <20140813205929.GE20518@dastard>
References: <AC10852F403846A182491ED8071135ED@alyakaslap> <20140806152042.GB39990@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx> <CAOcd+r3bC59m7Rh-3tmjrnWnF5XoPQfE=U+=hz78NcAGu+Ou1g@xxxxxxxxxxxxxx> <20140811132057.GA1186@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx> <20140811215207.GS20518@dastard> <20140812120341.GA46654@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx> <DC407F6E8F8C4EE1AF7117D7D6ABF282@alyakaslap> <20140812235615.GB20518@dastard> <20140813125932.GA4605@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx> <20140813205929.GE20518@dastard>
User-agent: Mutt/1.5.23 (2014-03-12)
On Thu, Aug 14, 2014 at 06:59:29AM +1000, Dave Chinner wrote:
> On Wed, Aug 13, 2014 at 08:59:32AM -0400, Brian Foster wrote:
> > On Wed, Aug 13, 2014 at 09:56:15AM +1000, Dave Chinner wrote:
> > > On Tue, Aug 12, 2014 at 03:39:02PM +0300, Alex Lyakas wrote:
> > > > Hello Dave, Brian,
> > > > I will describe a generic reproduction that you ask for.
> > > > 
> > > > It was performed on pristine XFS code from 3.8.13, taken from here:
> > > > git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/stable/linux-stable.git
> > > ....
> > > > I mounted XFS with the following options:
> > > > rw,sync,noatime,wsync,attr2,inode64,noquota 0 0
> > > > 
> > > > I started a couple of processes writing files sequentially onto this
> > > > mount point, and after few seconds crashed the VM.
> > > > When the VM came up, I took the metadump file and placed it in:
> > > > https://drive.google.com/file/d/0ByBy89zr3kJNa0ZpdmZFS242RVU/edit?usp=sharing
> > > > 
> > > > Then I set up the following Device Mapper target onto /dev/vde:
> > > > dmsetup create VDE --table "0 41943040 linear-custom /dev/vde 0"
> > > > I am attaching the code (and Makefile) of dm-linear-custom target.
> > > > It is exact copy of dm-linear, except that it has a module
> > > > parameter. With the parameter set to 0, this is an identity mapping
> > > > onto /dev/vde. If the parameter is set to non-0, all WRITE bios are
> > > > failed with ENOSPC. There is a workqueue to fail them in a different
> > > > context (not sure if really needed, but that's what our "real"
> > > > custom
> > > > block device does).
> > > 
> > > Well, they you go. That explains it - an asynchronous dispatch error
> > > happening fast enough to race with the synchronous XFS dispatch
> > > processing.
> > > 
> > > dispatch thread                   device workqueue
> > > xfs_buf_hold();
> > > atomic_set(b_io_remaining, 1)
> > > atomic_inc(b_io_remaining)
> > > submit_bio(bio)
> > > queue_work(bio)
> > > xfs_buf_ioend(bp, ....);
> > >   atomic_dec(b_io_remaining)
> > > xfs_buf_rele()
> > >                           bio error set to ENOSPC
> > >                             bio->end_io()
> > >                               xfs_buf_bio_endio()
> > >                                 bp->b_error = ENOSPC
> > >                                 _xfs_buf_ioend(bp, 1);
> > >                                   atomic_dec(b_io_remaining)
> > >                                     xfs_buf_ioend(bp, 1);
> > >                                       queue_work(bp)
> > > xfs_buf_iowait()
> > >  if (bp->b_error) return error;
> > > if (error)
> > >   xfs_buf_relse()
> > >     xfs_buf_rele()
> > >       xfs_buf_free()
> > > 
> > > And now we have a freed buffer that is queued on the io completion
> > > queue. Basically, it requires the buffer error to be set
> > > asynchronously *between* the dispatch decrementing it's I/O count
> > > after dispatch, but before we wait on the IO.
> > > 
> > 
> > That's basically the theory I wanted to test with the experimental
> > patch. E.g., the error check races with the iodone workqueue item.
> > 
> > > Not sure what the right fix is yet - removing the bp->b_error check
> > > from xfs_buf_iowait() doesn't solve the problem - it just prevents
> > > this code path from being tripped over by the race condition.
> > > 
> > 
> > Perhaps I'm missing some context... I don't follow how removing the
> > error check doesn't solve the problem. It clearly closes the race and
> > perhaps there are other means of doing the same thing, but what part of
> > the problem does that leave unresolved?
> 
> Anything that does:
> 
>       xfs_buf_iorequest(bp);
>       if (bp->b_error)
>               xfs_buf_relse(bp);
> 
> is susceptible to the same race condition. based on bp->b_error
> being set asynchronously and before the buffer IO completion
> processing is complete.
> 

Understood, by why would anything do that (as opposed to
xfs_buf_iowait())? I don't see that we do that anywhere today
(the check buried within xfs_buf_iowait() notwithstanding of course).

>From what I can see, all it really guarantees is that the submission has
either passed/failed the write verifier, yes?

> 
> > E.g., we provide a
> > synchronization mechanism for an async submission path and an object
> > (xfs_buf) that is involved with potentially multiple such async (I/O)
> > operations. The async callback side manages the counts of outstanding
> > bios etc. to set the state of the buf object correctly and fires a
> > completion when everything is done. The calling side simply waits on the
> > completion before it can analyze state of the object. Referring to
> > anything inside that object that happens to be managed by the buffer I/O
> > mechanism before the buffer is considered complete just seems generally
> > racy.
> 
> The point is that the IO submitter holds the buffer lock and so has
> "exclusive" access to the buffer, even after it is submitted. It is
> allowed to check the internal state of the buffer at any time, and
> it is expected to be sane, including while IO completion processing
> is running.
> 

Fair enough, but if the mechanism is async the submitter clearly knows
that's not failsafe (i.e., passing the check above doesn't mean the I/O
will not fail).

> The real issue is that workqueue based  IO completion processing is
> not protected by a reference count of any kind for synchronous IO.
> It is done with only the reference count of lock holder held, and so
> if the lock holder unlocks and frees the buffer, then that buffer
> will be freed.
> 

I see, the notion of the work item having a hold/refcount on the buffer
makes sense. But with a submission/wait mechanism that waits on actual
"completion" of the I/O (e.g., complete(bp->b_iowait)), that only offers
protection for the case where a sync I/O submitter doesn't wait. I
suppose that's possible, but also seems like a misuse of sync I/O. E.g.,
why wouldn't that caller do async I/O?

> This issue doesn't exist with B_ASYNC IO submission, because the
> B_ASYNC IO owns the reference and the the buffer lock and drops them
> from the workqueue when the IO comlpetion processing actuall
> completes...
> 

Indeed. I wasn't clear on the reference ownership nuance between the
sync/async variants of I/O. Thanks for the context. That said, we also
don't have submitters that check for errors on async I/O either.

> > It looks like submit_bio() manages this by providing the error through
> > the callback (always). It also doesn't look like submission path is
> > guaranteed to be synchronous either (consider md, which appears to use
> > workqueues and kernel threads)), so I'm not sure that '...;
> > xfs_buf_iorequest(bp); if (bp->b_error)' is really safe anywhere unless
> > you're explicitly looking for a write verifier error or something and
> > do nothing further on the buf contingent on completion (e.g., freeing it
> > or something it depends on).
> 
> My point remains that it *should be safe*, and the intent is that
> the caller should be able to check for submission errors without
> being exposed to a use after free situation. That's the bug we need
> to fix, not say "you can't check for submission errors on
> synchronous IO" to avoid the race condition.....
> 

Well, technically you can check for submission errors on sync I/O, just
use the code you posted above. :) What we can't currently do is find out
when the I/O subsystem is done with the buffer.

Perhaps the point here is around the semantics of xfs_buf_iowait(). With
a mechanism that is fundamentally async, the sync variant obviously
becomes the async mechanism + some kind of synchronization. I'd expect
that synchronization to not necessarily just tell me whether an error
occurred, but also tell me when the I/O subsystem is done with the
object I've passed (e.g., so I'm free to chuck it, scribble over it, put
it back where I got it, whatever).

My impression is that's the purpose of the b_iowait mechanism.
Otherwise, what's the point of the whole
bio_end_io->buf_ioend->b_iodone->buf_ioend round trip dance?

Brian

> Cheers,
> 
> Dave
> -- 
> Dave Chinner
> david@xxxxxxxxxxxxx

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