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Re: XFS fragmentation on file append

To: Dave Chinner <david@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Subject: Re: XFS fragmentation on file append
From: Keyur Govande <keyurgovande@xxxxxxxxx>
Date: Wed, 23 Apr 2014 15:05:00 -0400
Cc: linux-fsdevel@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xfs@xxxxxxxxxxx
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On Wed, Apr 23, 2014 at 1:47 AM, Dave Chinner <david@xxxxxxxxxxxxx> wrote:
> On Tue, Apr 22, 2014 at 07:35:34PM -0400, Keyur Govande wrote:
>> On Tue, Apr 8, 2014 at 1:31 AM, Dave Chinner <david@xxxxxxxxxxxxx> wrote:
>> > On Mon, Apr 07, 2014 at 11:42:02PM -0400, Keyur Govande wrote:
>> >> On Mon, Apr 7, 2014 at 9:50 PM, Dave Chinner <david@xxxxxxxxxxxxx> wrote:
>> >> > [cc the XFS mailing list <xfs@xxxxxxxxxxx>]
>> >> >
>> >> > On Mon, Apr 07, 2014 at 06:53:46PM -0400, Keyur Govande wrote:
>> >> >> Hello,
>> >> >>
>> >> >> I'm currently investigating a MySQL performance degradation on XFS due
>> >> >> to file fragmentation.
> .....
>> >> > Alternatively, set an extent size hint on the log files to define
>> >> > the minimum sized allocation (e.g. 32MB) and this will limit
>> >> > fragmentation without you having to modify the MySQL code at all...
> .....
>> I spent some more time figuring out the MySQL write semantics and it
>> doesn't open/close files often and initial test script was incorrect.
>>
>> It uses O_DIRECT and appends to the file; I modified my test binary to
> .....
>> [root@dbtest09 linux-3.10.37]# xfs_io -c "extsize " /var/lib/mysql/xfs/
>> [0] /var/lib/mysql/xfs/
>
> So you aren't using extent size hints....
>
>>
>> Here's how the first 3 AG's look like:
>> https://gist.github.com/keyurdg/82b955fb96b003930e4f
>>
>> After a run of the dpwrite program, here's how the bmap looks like:
>> https://gist.github.com/keyurdg/11196897
>>
>> The files have nicely interleaved with each other, mostly
>> XFS_IEXT_BUFSZ size extents.
>
> XFS_IEXT_BUFSZ Has nothing to do with the size of allocations. It's
> the size of the in memory array buffer used to hold extent records.
>
> What you are seeing is allocation interleaving according to the
> pattern and size of the direct IOs being done by the application.
> Which happen to be 512KB (1024 basic blocks) and the file being
> written to is randomly selected.
>

I misspoke; I meant to say XFS_IEXT_BUFSZ (4096) blocks per extent. As
long as each pwrite is less than 2 MB, the extents do lay out in 4096
blocks every time.

>> The average read speed is 724 MBps. After
>> defragmenting the file to 1 extent, the speed improves 30% to 1.09
>> GBps.
>
> Sure. Now set an extent size hint of 32MB and try again.

I did these runs as well going by your last email suggestion, but I
was more interested in what you thought about the other ideas so
didn't include the results.

32MB gives 850 MBps and 64MB hits 980MBps. The peak read rate from the
hardware for a contiguous file is 1.45 GBps. I could keep on
increasing it until I hit a number I like, but I was looking to see if
it could be globally optimized.

>
>> I noticed that XFS chooses the AG based on the parent directory's AG
>> and only the next sequential one if there's no space available.
>
> Yes, that's what the inode64 allocator does. It tries to keep files
> in the same directory close together.
>
>> A
>> small patch that chooses the AG randomly fixes the fragmentation issue
>> very nicely. All of the MySQL data files are in a single directory and
>> we see this in Production where a parent inode AG is filled, then the
>> sequential next, and so on.
>>
>> diff --git a/fs/xfs/xfs_ialloc.c b/fs/xfs/xfs_ialloc.c
>> index c8f5ae1..7841509 100644
>> --- a/fs/xfs/xfs_ialloc.c
>> +++ b/fs/xfs/xfs_ialloc.c
>> @@ -517,7 +517,7 @@ xfs_ialloc_ag_select(
>>          * to mean that blocks must be allocated for them,
>>          * if none are currently free.
>>          */
>> -       agno = pagno;
>> +       agno = ((xfs_agnumber_t) prandom_u32()) % agcount;
>>         flags = XFS_ALLOC_FLAG_TRYLOCK;
>>         for (;;) {
>>                 pag = xfs_perag_get(mp, agno);
>
> Ugh. That might fix the interleaving, but it randomly distributes
> related files over the entire filesystem. Hence if you have random
> access to the files (like a database does) you now have random seeks
> across the entire filesystem rather than within AGs. You basically
> destroy any concept of data locality that the filesystem has.

I realize this is terrible for small files like a source code tree,
but for a database which usually has a many large files in the same
directory the seek cost is amortized by the benefit from a large
contiguous read. Would it be terrible to have this modifiable as a
setting (like extsize is) with the default being the inode64 behavior?

>
>> I couldn't find guidance on the internet on how many allocation groups
>> to use for a 2 TB partition,
>
> I've already given guidance on that. Choose to ignore it if you
> will...
>

Could you repeat it or post a link? The only relevant info I found via
Google is using as many AGs as hardware threads
(http://blog.tsunanet.net/2011/08/mkfsxfs-raid10-optimal-performance.html).

>> but this random selection won't scale for
>> many hundreds of concurrently written files, but for a few heavily
>> writtent-to files it works nicely.
>>
>> I noticed that for non-DIRECT_IO + every write fsync'd, XFS would
>> cleverly keep doubling the allocation block size as the file kept
>> growing.
>
> That's the behaviour of delayed allocation.  By using buffered IO,
> the application has delegated all responisbility of optimal layout
> of the file to the filesystem, and this is the method XFS uses to
> minimise fragmentation in that case.
>
> Direct IO does not have delayed allocation - it allocates for the
> current IO according to the bounds given by the IO, inode extent size
> hints and alignment characteristic of the filesystem. It does not do
> specualtive allocation at all.
>
> The principle of direct IO to do exactly what the application asked,
> not to second guess what the application *might* need. Either the
> application delegates everything to the filesystem (i.e. buffered
> IO) or it assumes full responsibility for allocation behaviour and
> IO coherency (i.e. direct IO).
>
> IOWs, If you need to preallocate  space beyond EOF that doubles in
> size as the file grows to prevent fragmentation, then the
> application should be calling fallocate(FALLOC_FL_KEEP_SIZE) at
> the appropriate times or using extent size hints to define the
> minimum allocation sizes for the direct IO.
>
>> The "extsize" option seems to me a bit too static because the size of
>> tables we use varies widely and large new tables come and goe
>
> You can set the extsize per file at create time, but really, you
> only need to set the extent size just large enough to obtain maximal
> read speeds.
>
>> Could the same doubling logic be applied for DIRECT_IO writes as well?
>
> I don't think so. It would break many carefully tuned production
> systems out there that rely directly  on the fact that XFS does
> exactly what the application asks it to do when using direct IO.
>
> IOWs, I think you are trying to optimise the wrong layer - put your
> effort into making fallocate() do what the application needs to
> prevent fragmentation rather trying to hack the filesystem to do it
> for you.  Not only will that improve performance on XFS, but it will
> also improve performance on ext4 and any other filesystem that
> supports fallocate and direct IO.
>

I've been experimenting with patches to MySQL to use fallocate with
FALLOC_FL_KEEP_SIZE and measuring the performance and fragmentation.

I also poked at the kernel because I assumed other DBs may also
benefit from the heuristic (speculative) allocation. Point taken about
doing the optimization in the application layer.

> Cheers,
>
> Dave.
> --
> Dave Chinner
> david@xxxxxxxxxxxxx

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