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Re: Debunking myths about metadata CRC overhead

To: Geoffrey Wehrman <gwehrman@xxxxxxx>
Subject: Re: Debunking myths about metadata CRC overhead
From: Dave Chinner <david@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Tue, 4 Jun 2013 20:19:37 +1000
Cc: xfs@xxxxxxxxxxx
Delivered-to: xfs@xxxxxxxxxxx
In-reply-to: <20130604024329.GA29466@dastard>
References: <20130603074452.GZ29466@dastard> <20130603200052.GB863@xxxxxxx> <20130604024329.GA29466@dastard>
User-agent: Mutt/1.5.21 (2010-09-15)
On Tue, Jun 04, 2013 at 12:43:29PM +1000, Dave Chinner wrote:
> On Mon, Jun 03, 2013 at 03:00:53PM -0500, Geoffrey Wehrman wrote:
> > On Mon, Jun 03, 2013 at 05:44:52PM +1000, Dave Chinner wrote:
> > This will have significant impact
> > on SGI's DMF managed filesystems.
> You're concerned about bulkstat performance, then? Bulkstat will CRC
> every inode it reads, so the increase in inode size is the least of
> your worries....
> But bulkstat scalability is an unrelated issue to the CRC work,
> especially as bulkstat already needs application provided
> parallelism to scale effectively.

So, I just added a single threaded bulkstat pass to the fsmark
workload by passing xfs_fsr across the filesystem to test out what
impact it has. So, 50 million inodes in the directory structure:

                256 byte inodes,        512 byte inodes
                CRCs disabled           CRCs enabled
wall time       13m34.203s              14m15.266s
sys CPU         7m7.930s                8m52.050s
rate            61,425 inodes/s         58,479 inode/s
efficency       116,800 inodes/CPU/s    93,984 inodes/CPU/s

So, really it's not particularly significant in terms of performance
differential. Certainly there isn't anything signficant problem that
larger inodes cause.  For comparison, the 8-way find workloads:

                256 byte inodes,        512 byte inodes
                CRCs disabled           CRCs enabled
wall time       5m33.165s               8m18.256s
sys CPU         18m36.731s              22m2.277s
rate            150,055 inodes/s        100,400 inodes/s
efficiency      44,800 inodes/CPU/s     37,800 inodes/CPU/s

Which makes me think omething is not right with this bulkstat pass
I've just done. It's way too slow if a find+stat is 2-2.5x faster.

Ah, xfs_fsr only bulkstats 64 inodes at a time. That's right,
last time I did this I used bstat out of xfstests. On a CRC enabled

ninodes         runtime         sys time        read bw(IOPS)
64              14m01s          8m37s
128             11m20s          7m58s           35MB/s(5000)
256              8m53s          7m24s           45MB/s(6000)
512              7m24s          6m28s           55MB/s(7000)
1024             6m37s          5m40s           65MB/s(8000)
2048            10m50s          6m51s           35MB/s(5000)
4096(default)   26m23s          8m38s

Ask bulkstat for too few or too much, and it all goes to hell.  So
if we get the bulkstat config right, a single threaded bulkstat is
faster than the 8-way find, and a whole lot more efficient at it.
But, still there is effectively no performance differential between
256 byte and 512 byte inodes worth talking about.

And, FWIW, I just hacked threading into bstat to run a thread per AG
and just scan a single AG per thread. It's not perfect - it counts
some inodes twice (threads*ninodes at most) before it detects it's
run into the next AG. This is on a 100TB filesystem, so it runs 100
threads. CRC enabled fs:

ninodes         runtime         sys time        read bw(IOPS)
64               1m53s          10m25s          220MB/s (27000)
256              1m52s          10m03s          220MB/s (27000)
1024             1m55s          10m08s          210MB/s (26000)

So when it's threaded, the small request size just doesn't matter -
there's enough IO to drive the system to being IOPS bound and that
limits performance.

Just to go full circle, the differences between 256 byte inodes, no
CRCs and the crc enabled filesystem for a single threaded bulkstat:

                256 byte inodes,        512 byte inodes
                CRCs disabled           CRCs enabled
ninodes            1024                      1024
wall time          5m22s                     6m37s
sys CPU            4m46s                     5m40s
bw(IOPS)             40MB/s(5000)            65MB/s(8000)
rate            155,300 inodes/s        126,000 inode/s
efficency       174,800 inodes/CPU/s    147,000 inodes/CPU/s

Both follow the same ninode profile, but there is less IO done for
the 256 byte inode filesystem and throughput is higher. There's no
big surprise there, what does surprise me is that the difference
isn't larger. Let's drive it to being I/O bound with threading:

                256 byte inodes,        512 byte inodes
                CRCs disabled           CRCs enabled
ninodes             256                     256
wall time          1m02s                   1m52s
sys CPU            7m04s                  10m03s
bw/IOPS             210MB/s (27000)         220MB/s (27000)
rate            806,500 inodes/s        446,500 inode/s
efficency       117,900 inodes/CPU/s     82,900 inodes/CPU/s

The 256 byte inode test is completely CPU bound - it can't go any
faster than that, and it just so happens to be pretty close to IO
bound as well. So, while there's double the throughput for 256 byte
inodes, it raises an interesting question: why are all the IOs only
8k in size?

That means the inode readahead that bulkstat is doing is not being
combined down in the elevator - it is either being cancelled because
there is too much, or it is being dispatched immediately and so we
are being IOPS limited long before we should be. i.e. there's still
500MB of bandwidth available on this filesystem and we're issuing
sequential adjacent 8k IO.  Either way, it's not functioning as it


Yup, immediate, explicit unplug and dispatch. No readahead batching
and the unplug is coming from _xfs_buf_ioapply().  Well, that is
easy to fix.

                256 byte inodes,        512 byte inodes
                CRCs disabled           CRCs enabled
ninodes             256                     256
wall time          1m02s                   1m08s
sys CPU            7m07s                   8m09s
bw/IOPS             210MB/s (13500)         360MB/s (14000)
rate            806,500 inodes/s        735,300 inode/s
efficency       117,100 inodes/CPU/s    102,200 inodes/CPU/s

So, the difference in performance pretty much goes away. We burn
more bandwidth, but now the multithreaded bulkstat is CPU limited
for both non-crc, 256 byte inodes and CRC enabled 512 byte inodes.

What this says to me is that there isn't a bulkstat performance
problem that we need to fix apart from the 3 lines of code for the
readahead IO plugging that I just added.  It's only limited by
storage IOPS and available CPU power, yet the bandwidth is
sufficiently low that any storage system that SGI installs for DMF
is not going to be stressed by it. IOPS, yes. Bandwidth, no.


Dave Chinner

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