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Re: [PATCH 0/3] xfs: allocation worker causes freelist buffer lock hang

To: Mark Tinguely <tinguely@xxxxxxx>
Subject: Re: [PATCH 0/3] xfs: allocation worker causes freelist buffer lock hang
From: Dave Chinner <david@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 08:01:10 +1000
Cc: bpm@xxxxxxx, xfs@xxxxxxxxxxx
In-reply-to: <5061CA48.3040202@xxxxxxx>
References: <20120924171159.GG1140@xxxxxxx> <201209241809.q8OI94s3003323@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx> <20120925005632.GB23520@dastard> <5061CA48.3040202@xxxxxxx>
User-agent: Mutt/1.5.21 (2010-09-15)
On Tue, Sep 25, 2012 at 10:14:16AM -0500, Mark Tinguely wrote:
> On 09/24/12 19:56, Dave Chinner wrote:
> >On Mon, Sep 24, 2012 at 01:09:04PM -0500, Mark Tinguely wrote:
> >>> From bpm@xxxxxxx Mon Sep 24 12:11:59 2012
> >>>Date: Mon, 24 Sep 2012 12:11:59 -0500
> >>>From: Ben Myers<bpm@xxxxxxx>
> >>>To:<tinguely@xxxxxxx>
> >>>Subject: Re: [PATCH 0/3] xfs: allocation worker causes freelist buffer lock
> >>>   hang
> >>>Cc:<xfs@xxxxxxxxxxx>
> >>>
> >>>Hi Mark,
> >>>
> >>>On Wed, Sep 19, 2012 at 11:31:33AM -0500, tinguely@xxxxxxx wrote:
> >>>...
> >>>>I traced the callers of xfs_alloc_vextent(), noting transaction creation,
> >>>>commits and cancels; I noted loops in the callers and which were marked
> >>>>as metadata/userdata. I can send this document to reviewers.
> >>>
> >>>I'd like to see the doc of xfs_alloc_vextent callers and which of them 
> >>>loop.
> >>>Can you post your doc to the list?
> >>>
> >>>Regards,
> >>>   Ben
> >>
> >>
> >>Here are the Linux 3.6.x callers of xfs_alloc_vextent() stopping at the
> >>transaction commit/cancel level.
> >>
> >>XFS_BMAPI_METADATA *not* being set implies user data.
> >>
> >>Userdata being set is the community designated indication that an allocate
> >>worker is needed to prevent the overflow of the kernel stack.
> >>
> >>Calling xfs_alloc_vextent() several times with the same transaction can 
> >>cause
> >>a dead lock if a new allocation worker can not be allocated. I noted where 
> >>the
> >>loops occur. xfs_alloc_vextent() can call itself, those calls must be in the
> >>same allocation worker.
> >>
> >>As a bonus, consolidating the loops into one worker actually gives a slight
> >>performance advantage.
> >
> >Can you quantify it?
> 
> I was comparing the bonnie and iozone benchmarks outputs. I will see
> if someone can enlighten me on how to quantify those numbers.

Ugh.

Don't bother. Those are two of the worst offenders in the "useless
benchmarks for regression testing" category. Yeah, they *look* like
they give decent numbers, but I've wasted so much time looking at
results from these benhmarks only to find they do basic things wrong
and give numbers that vary simple because you've made a change that
increases or decreases the CPU cache footprint of a code path.

e.g. IOZone uses the same memory buffer as the source/destination of
all it's IO, and does not touch the contents of it at all. Hence for
small IO, the buffer stays resident in the CPU caches and gives
unrealsitically high throughput results. Worse is the fact that CPU
cache residency of the buffer can change according to the kernel
code path taken, so you can get massive changes in throughput just
by changing the layout of the code without changing any logic....

IOZone can be useful if you know exactly what you are doing and
using it to test a specific code path with a specific set of
configurations. e.g. comparing ext3/4/xfs/btrfs on the same kernel
and storage is fine. However, the moment you start using it to
compare different kernels, it's a total crap shoot....

> >>Sorry this is wider than 80 characters wide.
> >>            ---
> >>xfs_bmap_btalloc(xfs_bmalloca_t)
> >>! xfs_bmap_alloc(xfs_bmalloca_t)
> >>! ! xfs_bmapi_allocate(xfs_bmalloca_t, ...)
> >>! ! ! xfs_bmapi_write(xfs_trans_t ...)  loops over above
> >>! ! ! ! xfs_attr_rmtval_set(xfs_da_args_t) loops over bmapi_write 
> >>(xfs_attr_set_int) **XFS_BMAPI_METADATA**
> >>! ! ! ! xfs_da_grow_inode_int(xfs_da_args_t) loops over bmapi_write 
> >>**XFS_BMAPI_METADATA**
> >>! ! ! ! xfs_qm_dqalloc(xfs_trans_t ...) does a xfs_bmap_finish/cancel 
> >>**XFS_BMAPI_METADATA**
> >>! ! ! ! xfs_iomap_write_direct(...) alloc trans, xfs_trans_commit/cancel
> >>! ! ! ! xfs_iomap_write_allocate(...) alloc trans, xfs_trans_commit/cancel 
> >>safe loop
> >>! ! ! ! xfs_iomap_write_unwritten(..) alloc trans, xfs_trans_commit/cancel 
> >>safe loop
> >>! ! ! ! xfs_growfs_rt_alloc(..) alloc trans, xfs_trans_commit/cancel safe 
> >>loop
> >>! ! ! ! xfs_symlink(...) allocates trans does a xfs_trans_commit/cancel
> >>! ! ! ! xfs_alloc_file_space(...) alloc trans, xfs_trans_commit/cancel safe 
> >>loop
> >
> >So the only data path callers though here are
> >xfs_iomap_write_direct(), xfs_iomap_write_allocate() and
> >xfs_iomap_write_unwritten() and xfs_alloc_file_space(). Everything
> >else is metadata, so won't use
> 
> Correct. Only these use the worker. All the other paths directly
> call the __xfs_alloc_vextent() routine. I saved the xfs_bmalloca and
> fs_alloc_arg when allocating a buffer. I am quite confident that
> this is the only path that causes the problem.

Of course - they are the only paths that do userdata allocation :/
> 
> >>xfs_bmap_extents_to_btree(xfs_trans_t ...)<- set userdata to 0 (patch 3)
> >>! xfs_bmap_add_attrfork_extents(xfs_trans_t ...)
> >>! ! xfs_bmap_add_attrfork(...) allocates trans does a 
> >>xfs_trans_commit/cancel
> >>! xfs_bmap_add_extent_delay_real(fs_bmalloca)
> >>! ! xfs_bmapi_allocate(xfs_bmalloca_t, ...)
> >>! ! !<see above>
> >>! xfs_bmap_add_extent_unwritten_real(xfs_trans_t ...)
> >>! ! xfs_bmapi_convert_unwritten(xfs_bmalloca ...)
> >>! ! ! xfs_bmapi_write(xfs_trans ...) calls xfs_bmapi_convert_unwritten in 
> >>loop XFS_BMAPI_METADATA
> >>! ! ! ! ...<see above>
> >.....
> >>! xfs_bmap_add_extent_hole_real(xfs_bmalloca ...)
> >>! ! xfs_bmapi_allocate(xfs_bmalloca_t, ...)
> >>! ! ! ...<see above>
> >
> >So it's bmbt modification that looks to be the problem here, right?
> >
> >>xfs_bmap_local_to_extents(xfs_trans_t ...)<- set userdata to 0 (patch 3)
> >>! xfs_bmap_add_attrfork_local(xfs_trans_t ..)
> >>! ! xfs_bmap_add_attrfork(...) trans alloc, bmap_finish trans_commit/cancel
> >>! xfs_bmapi_write(xfs_trans_t ...) XFS_BMAPI_METADATA
> >>! ! ...<see above>
> >
> >Same here.
> >
> >That's all I can see as problematic - maybe I read the output wrong
> >and there's others?
> >
> >i.e. all other xfs_alloc_vextent() callers are either in metadata
> >context (so don't use the workqueue) or commit the transaction
> >directly after xfs_bmapi_write returns so will unlock the AGF buffer
> >before calling into xfs_bmapi_write a second time.
> >
> >If these are the only loops, then patch 3 is all that is
> >necessary to avoid the problem of blocking on workqueue resource
> >while we are already on the workqueue, right? i.e. bmbt allocation
> >is a metadata allocation, even though the context is a data
> >allocation, and ensuring it is metadata means that the current
> >transaction won't get blocked waiting for workqueue resources...
> >
> >What am I missing?
> 
> Patch 3 is a clean up.

I disagree - allocating metadata using the userdata tag is clearly
wrong, and AFAICT is a real deadlock.

> userdata is used by the allocation routines
> and its value should be correct for those routines. I discovered the
> uninitialized values tracing the calling list. The fact that the
> worker routine was using and randomly creating a worker based on the
> stack value is not a factor in the problem because those paths do
> not loop on xfs_alloc_vextent().

I guess I don't understand what you mean by "loop on
xfs_alloc_vextent()" then.

The problem I see above is this:

thread 1                worker 1                worker 2..max
xfs_bmapi_write(userdata)
  xfs_bmapi_allocate(user)
    xfs_alloc_vextent(user)
      wait

                        _xfs_alloc_vextent()
                        locks AGF
                                                _xfs_alloc_vextent()
                                                blocks on AGF lock
                        completes allocation

      <returns with AGF locked in transaction>
    xfs_bmap_add_extent_hole_real
      xfs_bmap_extents_to_btree
        xfs_alloc_vextent(user)
          wait

<deadlock as no more workers available>

The moment xfs_bmap_extents_to_btree() is converted to a metadata
allocation, this deadlock goes away because we end up doing:

    xfs_bmap_add_extent_hole_real
      xfs_bmap_extents_to_btree
        xfs_alloc_vextent(meta)
          __xfs_alloc_vextent

and continuing to the end of xfs_bmapi_write() without ever waiting
on a worker thread while holding the AGF locked.

I cannot see any other path where we call xfs_alloc_vextent() with
the AGF locked within an active transaction with userdata set, which
is why I'm saying that I don't understand what you mean by
"loops on xfs_alloc_vextent()".

> Patch 2 moves the worker so that when the worker servicing data
> allocation request gets the lock, it will hold the worker over the
> loop in xfs_bmapi_write() until it can do a xfs_trans_commit/cancel.
> If it does not have the lock, then that worker will wait until it
> can get the lock.
> 
> Your patch hangs when limiting the available workers on test 109 on
> the 3 machines (2 x86_64 and a x86_32) that I tried it on. I am
> trying a fourth machine to be sure.

Yeah, looks like the loop in __xfs_alloc_vextent is not terminating
correctly. I'll fix it.

Cheers,

Dave.
-- 
Dave Chinner
david@xxxxxxxxxxxxx

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