On 03/19/12 17:20, Dave Chinner wrote:
On Mon, Mar 19, 2012 at 11:47:44AM -0500, Mark Tinguely wrote:
On 03/06/12 22:50, Dave Chinner wrote:
From: Dave Chinner<dchinner@xxxxxxxxxx>
We currently have significant issues with the amount of stack that
allocation in XFS uses, especially in the writeback path. We can
easily consume 4k of stack between mapping the page, manipulating
the bmap btree and allocating blocks from the free list. Not to
mention btree block readahead and other functionality that issues IO
in the allocation path.
As a result, we can no longer fit allocation in the writeback path
in the stack space provided on x86_64. To alleviate this problem,
introduce an allocation workqueue and move all allocations to a
seperate context. This can be easily added as an interposing layer
into xfs_alloc_vextent(), which takes a single argument structure
and does not return until the allocation is complete or has failed.
To do this, add a work structure and a completion to the allocation
args structure. This allows xfs_alloc_vextent to queue the args onto
the workqueue and wait for it to be completed by the worker. This
can be done completely transparently to the caller.
The worker function needs to ensure that it sets and clears the
PF_TRANS flag appropriately as it is being run in an active
transaction context. Work can also be queued in a memory reclaim
context, so a rescuer is needed for the workqueue.
Signed-off-by: Dave Chinner<dchinner@xxxxxxxxxx>
#include<std/disclaimer> # speaking for myself
As the problem is described above, it sounds like the STANDARD x86_64
configuration is in stack crisis needing to put a worker in-line to
solve the stack issue.
Adding an in-line worker to fix a "stack crisis" without any other
measures and the Linux's implementation of the kernel stack (not
configurable on compilation, and requiring order of magnitude physical
allocation), sent me into a full blown rant last week.
You think I like it?
No, no at all. Half of my ranting was about the kernel page limit.
what? when? why? how? WTF? - you know the standard rant. I even
generated a couple yawns of response from people! :)
Yeah, I know. Stack usage has been a problem for years and years. I
even mentioned at last year's Kernel Summit that we needed to
consider increasing the size of the kernel stack to 16KB to support
typical storage configurations. That was met with the same old "so
what?" response: "your filesystem code is broken". I still haven;t
been able to get across that it isn't the filesystems that are
causing the problems.
For example, what's a typical memory allocation failure stack look
like? Try this:
0) 5152 256 get_page_from_freelist+0x52d/0x840
1) 4896 272 __alloc_pages_nodemask+0x10e/0x760
2) 4624 48 kmem_getpages+0x70/0x170
3) 4576 112 cache_grow+0x2a9/0x2d0
4) 4464 80 cache_alloc_refill+0x1a3/0x1ea
5) 4384 80 kmem_cache_alloc+0x181/0x190
6) 4304 16 mempool_alloc_slab+0x15/0x20
7) 4288 128 mempool_alloc+0x5e/0x160
8) 4160 16 scsi_sg_alloc+0x44/0x50
9) 4144 112 __sg_alloc_table+0x67/0x140
10) 4032 32 scsi_init_sgtable+0x33/0x90
11) 4000 48 scsi_init_io+0x28/0xc0
12) 3952 32 scsi_setup_fs_cmnd+0x63/0xa0
13) 3920 112 sd_prep_fn+0x158/0xa70
14) 3808 64 blk_peek_request+0xb8/0x230
15) 3744 80 scsi_request_fn+0x54/0x3f0
16) 3664 80 queue_unplugged+0x55/0xf0
17) 3584 112 blk_flush_plug_list+0x1c3/0x220
18) 3472 32 io_schedule+0x78/0xd0
19) 3440 16 sleep_on_page+0xe/0x20
20) 3424 80 __wait_on_bit+0x5f/0x90
21) 3344 80 wait_on_page_bit+0x78/0x80
22) 3264 288 shrink_page_list+0x445/0x950
23) 2976 192 shrink_inactive_list+0x448/0x520
24) 2784 256 shrink_mem_cgroup_zone+0x421/0x520
25) 2528 144 do_try_to_free_pages+0x12f/0x3e0
26) 2384 192 try_to_free_pages+0xab/0x170
27) 2192 272 __alloc_pages_nodemask+0x4a8/0x760
28) 1920 48 kmem_getpages+0x70/0x170
29) 1872 112 fallback_alloc+0x1ff/0x220
30) 1760 96 ____cache_alloc_node+0x9a/0x150
31) 1664 32 __kmalloc+0x185/0x200
32) 1632 112 kmem_alloc+0x67/0xe0
33) 1520 144 xfs_log_commit_cil+0xfe/0x540
34) 1376 80 xfs_trans_commit+0xc2/0x2a0
35) 1296 192 xfs_dir_ialloc+0x120/0x320
36) 1104 208 xfs_create+0x4df/0x6b0
37) 896 112 xfs_vn_mknod+0x8f/0x1c0
38) 784 16 xfs_vn_create+0x13/0x20
39) 768 64 vfs_create+0xb4/0xf0
Wow, that much stack to clean and allocate a page. I am glad I did not
know that week, I would have had a stroke instead of a rant.
That's just waiting for a page flag to clear triggering a plug
flush, and that requires ~3600 bytes of stack. This is the swap
path, not a filesystem path. This is also on a single SATA drive
with no NFS, MD/DM, etc. What this says is that we cannot commit a
transaction with more than 4300 bytes of stack consumed, otherwise
we risk overflowing the stack.
It's when you start seeing fragments like this that you start to
realise the depth of the problem:
2) 5136 112 get_request+0x2a5/0x560
3) 5024 176 get_request_wait+0x32/0x240
4) 4848 96 blk_queue_bio+0x73/0x400
5) 4752 48 generic_make_request+0xc7/0x100
6) 4704 96 submit_bio+0x66/0xe0
7) 4608 112 _xfs_buf_ioapply+0x15c/0x1c0
8) 4496 64 xfs_buf_iorequest+0x7b/0xf0
9) 4432 32 xlog_bdstrat+0x23/0x60
10) 4400 96 xlog_sync+0x2e4/0x520
11) 4304 48 xlog_state_release_iclog+0xeb/0x130
12) 4256 208 xlog_write+0x6a3/0x750
13) 4048 192 xlog_cil_push+0x264/0x3a0
14) 3856 144 xlog_cil_force_lsn+0x144/0x150
15) 3712 144 _xfs_log_force+0x6a/0x280
16) 3568 32 xfs_log_force+0x18/0x40
17) 3536 80 xfs_buf_trylock+0x9a/0xf0
Thank-you for documenting this.
Any metadata read we do that hits a pinned buffer needs a minimum
1500 bytes of stack before we hit the driver code, which from the
above swap trace, requires around 1300 bytes to dispatch safely for
the SCSI stack. So we can't safely issue a metadata *read* without
having about 3KB of stack available. And given that if we do a
double btree split and have to read in a metadata buffer, that means
we can't start the allocation with more than about 2KB of stack
consumed. And that is questionable when we add MD/DM layers into the
picture as well....
IOWs, there is simply no way we can fit an allocation call chain
into an 8KB stack when even a small amount of stack is consumed
prior to triggering allocation. Pushing the allocation off into it's
own context is, AFAICT, the only choice we have here to avoid stack
overruns because nobody else wants to acknowledge there is a
Sigh. Also part of my rant that I can't believe that this is an issue
As it is, even pushing the allocation off into it's own context is
questionable as to whether it will fit in the 8KB stack given the
crazy amount of stack that the memory allocation path can consume
and we can hit that path deep in the allocation stack....
x86_64, x86_32 (and untested ARM) code can be sent to anyone who wants
to try this at home. I would say, a generic configuration is using at
most 3KB of the stack is being used by the time xfs_alloc_vextent()
is being called and that includes the nested calls of the routine. So
for most setups, we can say the standard 8KB stacks is in no danger of
depletion and will not benefit from this feature.
You should be able to see how easy it is to put together a call stack
that blows 8k now...
Let us talk about 4KB stacks....
No, let's not.
I believe that the kernel stacks do not need to be physically
Sure, but the problem is that making them vmalloc'd memory will
reduce performance and no change that reduces performance will ever
be accepted. So contiguous kernel mapped stacks are here to stay.
Would 8KB stacks be used in this environment if the Linux
did not implement them as physically contiguous? What is the plan
when the 8KB limits become threatened?
The current plan appears to be to stick our fingers in our ears,
and then stick our heads in the sand....
This feature and the related nuances are good topics for the
upcoming Linux Filesystem and MM forum next month.
I'm not sure that there is much to be gained by discussing it with
people that already agree that there is a problem. I'll try, though.
The other half of my rant is:
I haven't seen XFS on a stack reduction in new code nor existing code
(splitting routines and local variables) but I know that can only go
Filesystems, network stacks, well any kernel services, can't play
"Whack-a-mole" with the stack issues for long. The problems will just
pop up somewhere else.
I suspect it will take a big group of choir-members, the companies
they work for and the customers they represent to change the situation.
Sad. How can we get everyone in a rant over this situation?
Also thank-you for not biting my head off.