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Re: [PATCH 2/3] xfs: convert inode cache lookups to use RCU locking

To: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Subject: Re: [PATCH 2/3] xfs: convert inode cache lookups to use RCU locking
From: Dave Chinner <david@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Wed, 15 Dec 2010 10:00:47 +1100
Cc: xfs@xxxxxxxxxxx, eric.dumazet@xxxxxxxxx
In-reply-to: <20101214211801.GH2161@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
References: <1292203957-15819-1-git-send-email-david@xxxxxxxxxxxxx> <1292203957-15819-3-git-send-email-david@xxxxxxxxxxxxx> <20101214211801.GH2161@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
User-agent: Mutt/1.5.20 (2009-06-14)
On Tue, Dec 14, 2010 at 01:18:01PM -0800, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> On Mon, Dec 13, 2010 at 12:32:36PM +1100, Dave Chinner wrote:
> > From: Dave Chinner <dchinner@xxxxxxxxxx>
> > 
> > With delayed logging greatly increasing the sustained parallelism of inode
> > operations, the inode cache locking is showing significant read vs write
> > contention when inode reclaim runs at the same time as lookups. There is
> > also a lot more write lock acquistions than there are read locks (4:1 ratio)
> > so the read locking is not really buying us much in the way of parallelism.
> > 
> > To avoid the read vs write contention, change the cache to use RCU locking 
> > on
> > the read side. To avoid needing to RCU free every single inode, use the 
> > built
> > in slab RCU freeing mechanism. This requires us to be able to detect 
> > lookups of
> > freed inodes, so enѕure that ever freed inode has an inode number of zero 
> > and
> > the XFS_IRECLAIM flag set. We already check the XFS_IRECLAIM flag in cache 
> > hit
> > lookup path, but also add a check for a zero inode number as well.
> > 
> > We canthen convert all the read locking lockups to use RCU read side locking
> > and hence remove all read side locking.
> 
> OK, so the xfs_inode uses straight RCU, and there fore cannot be freed and
> immediately reallocated, while the inode itself uses SLAB_DESTROY_BY_RCU,
> which does allow the inode to be freed and immediately reallocated,
> correct?

No, the struct inode is embedded in the struct xfs_inode, so they
have the same lifecycle. i.e. we don't separately allocate and free
the struct inode. So it is all using straight RCU.

> Some questions and comments below.
> 
>                                                       Thanx, Paul
> 
> > Signed-off-by: Dave Chinner <dchinner@xxxxxxxxxx>
> > Reviewed-by: Alex Elder <aelder@xxxxxxx>
> > ---
> >  fs/xfs/linux-2.6/xfs_sync.c |   27 ++++++++++++++++-----
> >  fs/xfs/xfs_iget.c           |   50 
> > +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------
> >  fs/xfs/xfs_inode.c          |   52 
> > +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++----------
> >  3 files changed, 98 insertions(+), 31 deletions(-)
> > 
> > diff --git a/fs/xfs/linux-2.6/xfs_sync.c b/fs/xfs/linux-2.6/xfs_sync.c
> > index afb0d7c..5ee02d7 100644
> > --- a/fs/xfs/linux-2.6/xfs_sync.c
> > +++ b/fs/xfs/linux-2.6/xfs_sync.c
> > @@ -53,14 +53,20 @@ xfs_inode_ag_walk_grab(
> >  {
> >     struct inode            *inode = VFS_I(ip);
> > 
> > +   /* check for stale RCU freed inode */
> > +   spin_lock(&ip->i_flags_lock);
> > +   if (!ip->i_ino)
> > +           goto out_unlock_noent;
> > +
> > +   /* avoid new or reclaimable inodes. Leave for reclaim code to flush */
> > +   if (__xfs_iflags_test(ip, XFS_INEW | XFS_IRECLAIMABLE | XFS_IRECLAIM))
> > +           goto out_unlock_noent;
> > +   spin_unlock(&ip->i_flags_lock);
> > +
> 
> OK, this works because the xfs_inode cannot be freed and reallocated (which
> the RCU change should enforce).  It is not clear to me that the above
> would work if using the SLAB_DESTROY_BY_RCU approach, at least not unless
> some higher-level checks can reliably catch an inode changing identity
> due to quick free and reallocation.

In this case, I don't believe it matters if the inode has changed
identity - we are walking for writeback, so if we get a reallocated
inode we'll write it back if it is dirty. If it has not been
reallocated or still being initialised, the !ip->i_ino and
XFS_INEW|XFS_IRECLAIM checks are sufficient to avoid using the inode.

I probably should add a comment to this effect, yes?

> Also, all calls to xfs_inode_ag_walk_grab() must be in RCU read-side
> critical sections...  I suggest a debug check for rcu_read_lock_held() to
> catch any call paths that might have slipped through. 

Yes, good idea.

> At first glance,
> it appears that RCU is replacing some of ->pag_ici_lock, but I could
> easily be mistaken.

Correct, it is replacing the read side of the ->pag_ici_lock.

> > @@ -639,6 +649,9 @@ xfs_reclaim_inode_grab(
> >     struct xfs_inode        *ip,
> >     int                     flags)
> >  {
> > +   /* check for stale RCU freed inode */
> > +   if (!ip->i_ino)
> > +           return 1;
> 
> Does this mean that we need to be under rcu_read_lock() here?  If not,
> how do we keep the inode from really being freed out from under us?

Hmmm, I think I've mismerged a patch somewhere along the line. In
this patch the reclaim tree walk is under the ->pag_ici_lock(), when
in fact it should be under the rcu_read_lock(). Good catch, Paul.

As it is, being under the ->pag_ici_lock means that the tree is
consistent and we won't be seeing RCU freed inodes in the walk.
Hence the code is functioning correctly, just not as wasss intended.

> (Again, if we do need to be under rcu_read_lock(), I highly recommend
> a debug check for rcu_read_lock_held().)

Yup, which would have caught the merge screwup...

....
> > 
> > +   /*
> > +    * check for re-use of an inode within an RCU grace period due to the
> > +    * radix tree nodes not being updated yet. We monitor for this by
> > +    * setting the inode number to zero before freeing the inode structure.
> > +    * If the inode has been reallocated and set up, then the inode number
> > +    * will not match, so check for that, too.
> > +    */
> >     spin_lock(&ip->i_flags_lock);
> > +   if (ip->i_ino != ino) {
> > +           trace_xfs_iget_skip(ip);
> > +           XFS_STATS_INC(xs_ig_frecycle);
> > +           spin_unlock(&ip->i_flags_lock);
> > +           rcu_read_unlock();
> > +           /* Expire the grace period so we don't trip over it again. */
> > +           synchronize_rcu();
> 
> Hmmm...  Interesting.  Wouldn't the fact that we acquired the same lock
> that was held after removing the inode guarantee that an immediate retry
> would manage not to find this same inode again?

That is what I'm not sure of. I was more worried about resolving the
contents of the radix tree nodes, not so much the inode itself. If a
new traversal will resolve the tree correctly (which is what you are
implying), then synchronize_rcu() is not needed....

> If this is not the case, then readers finding it again will not be
> protected by the RCU grace period, right?
> 
> In short, I don't understand why the synchronize_rcu() is needed.
> If it is somehow helping, that sounds to me like it is covering up
> a real bug that should be fixed separately.

It isn't covering up a bug, it was more tryingt o be consistent with
the rest of the xfs_inode lookup failures - we back off and try
again later. If that is unnecessary resolve the RCU lookup race,
then it can be dropped.

> > @@ -397,7 +423,7 @@ xfs_iget(
> >     xfs_agino_t     agino;
> > 
> >     /* reject inode numbers outside existing AGs */
> > -   if (XFS_INO_TO_AGNO(mp, ino) >= mp->m_sb.sb_agcount)
> > +   if (!ino || XFS_INO_TO_AGNO(mp, ino) >= mp->m_sb.sb_agcount)
> 
> For the above check to be safe, don't we need to already be in an
> RCU read-side critical section?  Or is something else protecting us?

"ino" is the inode number used as the lookup key to find the struct
xfs_inode. This is ensuring we don't try to look up an inode number
of zero given it's new special meaning as a freed inode. Hence it
can be safely validated outside the RCU read-side critical sectioni
as it is a constant.

Thanks for the review, Paul. I'll fix up the issues you've pointed
out and retest.

Cheers,

Dave.
-- 
Dave Chinner
david@xxxxxxxxxxxxx

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