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Re: [patch] mm: fix lockless pagecache reordering bug (was Re: BUG: soft

To: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Subject: Re: [patch] mm: fix lockless pagecache reordering bug (was Re: BUG: soft lockup - is this XFS problem?)
From: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Mon, 5 Jan 2009 12:39:14 -0800 (PST)
Cc: Nick Piggin <npiggin@xxxxxxx>, Peter Klotz <peter.klotz@xxxxxx>, stable@xxxxxxxxxx, Linux Memory Management List <linux-mm@xxxxxxxxx>, Christoph Hellwig <hch@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>, Roman Kononov <kernel@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>, linux-kernel@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, xfs@xxxxxxxxxxx, Andrew Morton <akpm@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
In-reply-to: <20090105201258.GN6959@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
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User-agent: Alpine 2.00 (LFD 1167 2008-08-23)

On Mon, 5 Jan 2009, Paul E. McKenney wrote:
> 
> My guess is that Nick believes that the value in *pslot cannot change
> in such as way as to cause radix_tree_is_indirect_ptr()'s return value
> to change within a given RCU grace period, and that Linus disagrees.

Oh, it's entirely possible that there are some lifetime rules or others 
that make it impossible for things to go from "not indirect" -> 
"indirect". So if that was Nick's point, then I'm not "disagreeing" per 
se.

What I'm disagreeing about is that Nick apparently thinks that this is all 
subtle code, and as a result we should add barriers in some very 
non-obvious places.

While _I_ think that the problem isn't properly solved by barriers, but by 
just making the code less subtle. If the barrier only exists because of 
the reload issue, then the obvious solution - to me - is to just use what 
is already the proper accessor function that forces a nice reload. That 
way the compiler is forced to create code that does what the source 
clearly means it to do, regardless of any barriers at all.

Barriers in general should be the _last_ thing added. And if they are 
added, they should be added as deeply in the call-chain as possible, so 
that we don't need to add them in multiple call-sites. Again, using the 
rcu_dereference() approach seems to solve that issue too - rather than add 
three barriers in three different places, we just add the proper 
dereference in _one_ place.

> Whatever the answer, I would argue for -at- -least- a comment explaining
> why it is safe.  I am not seeing the objection to rcu_dereference(), but
> I must confess that it has been awhile since I have looked closely at
> the radix_tree code.  :-/

And I'm actually suprised that gcc can generate the problematic code in 
the first place. I'd expect that a "atomic_add_unless()" would always be 
at LEAST a compiler barrier, even if it isn't necessarily a CPU memory 
barrier.

But because we inline it, and because we allow gcc to see that it doesn't 
do anything if it gets just the right value from memory, I guess gcc ends 
up able to change the "for()" loop so that the first iteration can exit 
specially, and then for that case (and no other case) it can cache 
variables over the whole atomic_add_unless().

Again, that's very fragile. The fact that Documentation/atomic_ops.txt 
says that the failure case doesn't contain any barriers is really _meant_ 
to be about the architecture-specific CPU barriers, not so much about 
something as simple as a compiler re-ordering. 

So while I think that we should use rcu_dereference() (regardless of any 
other issues), I _also_ think that part of the problem really is the 
excessive subtlety in the whole code, and the (obviously very surprising) 
fact that gcc could end up caching an unrelated memory load across that 
whole atomic op.

Maybe we should make atomics always imply a compiler barrier, even when 
they do not imply a memory barrier. The one exception would be the 
(special) case of "atomic_read()/atomic_set()", which don't really do any 
kind of complex operation at all, and where we really do want the compiler 
to be able to coalesce multiple atomic_reads() to a single one.

In contrast, there's no sense in allowing the compiler to coalesce a 
"atomic_add_unless()" with anything else. Making it a compiler barrier 
(possibly by uninlining it, or just adding a barrier to it) would also 
have avoided the whole subtle case - which is always a good thing.

                                Linus

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