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mismatch_cnt, random bitflips, silent corruption(?), mdadm/sw raid[156]

To: linux-kernel@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, linux-raid@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Subject: mismatch_cnt, random bitflips, silent corruption(?), mdadm/sw raid[156]
From: Justin Piszcz <jpiszcz@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx>
Date: Thu, 25 Dec 2008 13:04:07 -0500 (EST)
Cc: xfs@xxxxxxxxxxx, smartmontools-support@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx, Alan Piszcz <ap@xxxxxxxxxxxxx>
User-agent: Alpine 1.10 (DEB 962 2008-03-14)
I have many backups of data from the late 1990s onward, each of which have been combined into tar files and then encrypted with gpg, each is about 4 gigabytes so I can store them on DVD. For quicker access, I also kept them on software raid. In the past, I have always kept them on either SW RAID5 or SW RAID6 using XFS. All of the machines in question that I have/had the data on never exhibited any bad memory and all pass memtest OK. However, what is worrisome, is, on occasion, the mismatch_cnt would be some crazy number on different machines, 2000 or 5000, I checked all of the disks with smart, they appear to be OK and when I run a check and repair against the raid then the count will usually go back down to zero.

However, in reality, are these "mismatches" really an indication of silent data corruption? In my case, I have 199 of these backup files and when I tried to unencrypt the data, I got these errors on several volumes:

========================================================================

gpg: block_filter 0x1c8e200: read error (size=10266,a->size=10266)
gpg: mdc_packet with invalid encoding
gpg: decryption failed: invalid packet
gpg: block_filter: pending bytes!
gpg: fatal: zlib inflate problem: invalid stored block lengths
secmem usage: 2368/2496 bytes in 6/7 blocks of pool 3104/32768
gpg: fatal: zlib inflate problem: invalid block type
secmem usage: 2368/2496 bytes in 6/7 blocks of pool 3104/32768
gpg: fatal: zlib inflate problem: invalid code lengths set
secmem usage: 2368/2496 bytes in 6/7 blocks of pool 3104/32768
gpg: fatal: zlib inflate problem: invalid block type
secmem usage: 2368/2496 bytes in 6/7 blocks of pool 3104/32768
gpg: fatal: zlib inflate problem: invalid block type
secmem usage: 2368/2496 bytes in 6/7 blocks of pool 3104/32768
gpg: [don't know]: invalid packet (ctb=1f)
gpg: [don't know]: invalid packet (ctb=2d)
gpg: mdc_packet with invalid encoding
gpg: decryption failed: invalid packet
gpg: [don't know]: invalid packet (ctb=30)
gpg: fatal: zlib inflate problem: invalid stored block lengths
secmem usage: 2368/2496 bytes in 6/7 blocks of pool 3104/32768
gpg: fatal: zlib inflate problem: invalid stored block lengths
secmem usage: 2368/2496 bytes in 6/7 blocks of pool 3104/32768
gpg: fatal: zlib inflate problem: invalid code lengths set
secmem usage: 2368/2496 bytes in 6/7 blocks of pool 3104/32768
gpg: fatal: zlib inflate problem: invalid stored block lengths
secmem usage: 2368/2496 bytes in 6/7 blocks of pool 3104/32768
gpg: fatal: zlib inflate problem: invalid distance code
secmem usage: 2368/2496 bytes in 6/7 blocks of pool 3104/32768
gpg: fatal: zlib inflate problem: invalid distance code
secmem usage: 2368/2496 bytes in 6/7 blocks of pool 3104/32768
gpg: fatal: zlib inflate problem: invalid code lengths set
secmem usage: 2368/2496 bytes in 6/7 blocks of pool 3104/32768
gpg: fatal: zlib inflate problem: invalid block type
secmem usage: 2368/2496 bytes in 6/7 blocks of pool 3104/32768

========================================================================

This resulted in partial-sized corrupted tarballs, I am decompressing each
of the 199 backups now to isolate which are affected so I can come up with
a better count on how many files were affected.

The total amount of data is: 832G in 199 files (4.18gig/file average)

========================================================================

Bad files (out of the 199):

Thu Dec 25 05:44:16 EST 2008: Decompressing backup038.tar
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now
Thu Dec 25 08:18:00 EST 2008: Decompressing backup103.tar
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now
Thu Dec 25 08:34:39 EST 2008: Decompressing backup111.tar
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now
Thu Dec 25 08:43:26 EST 2008: Decompressing backup115.tar
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now
Thu Dec 25 08:54:39 EST 2008: Decompressing backup120.tar
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now
Thu Dec 25 09:36:02 EST 2008: Decompressing backup137.tar
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now
Thu Dec 25 09:36:39 EST 2008: Decompressing backup138.tar
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now
Thu Dec 25 09:52:06 EST 2008: Decompressing backup145.tar
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now
Thu Dec 25 10:10:14 EST 2008: Decompressing backup153.tar
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now
Thu Dec 25 10:10:32 EST 2008: Decompressing backup154.tar
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now
Thu Dec 25 10:36:50 EST 2008: Decompressing backup166.tar
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now
Thu Dec 25 10:40:19 EST 2008: Decompressing backup168.tar
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now
Thu Dec 25 11:20:00 EST 2008: Decompressing backup181.tar
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now
Thu Dec 25 11:39:11 EST 2008: Decompressing backup187.tar
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now
Thu Dec 25 12:05:27 EST 2008: Decompressing backup194.tar
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Unexpected EOF in archive
tar: Error is not recoverable: exiting now



========================================================================

Example of one file:
-rw-r--r--  1 root root   40M 2008-12-24 20:08 backup038.tar
-rw-r--r--  1 root root  4.3G 2008-12-23 17:45 backup038.tar.gpg

========================================================================

I have restored the data off of DVD and confirmed the data that had resided on disk must have suffered from a bit-flip/corruption:

$ md5sum backup038.tar.gpg 9958813aa22e4307f2101f87b8820bff backup038.tar.gpg (from dvd)

$ md5sum backup038.tar.gpg
9437138a01fc2429ca2131f6a10295b5  backup038.tar.gpg (from disk)

========================================================================

Splitting these files up we can isolate how many corruptions occured in the
file:

dvd$ split -b 100M backup038.tar.gpg
hdd$ split -b 100M backup038.tar.gpg

$ diff dvd.md5 ../hdd/hdd.md5 1c1
< 9dfcab90fd6590705ba4293994f10a85  xaa
---
cce57047ac869ef3e603d4d6bd3579e9  xaa

========================================================================

Dig further:
$ mv xaa dvd.xaa
$ mv xaa hdd.xaa

$ split -b 1M dvd.xaa $ split -b 1M hdd.xaa

$ diff dvd.md5 ../../hdd/xaa_split/hdd.md5 40c40
< 439e4291ea67240c0b083abe5f041319  xbn
---
95e548284fa78f750b50f3e6a8e1b847  xbn

========================================================================

Further..
$ split -a 100 -b 1k dvd.xbn $ split -a 100 -b 1k hdd.xbn

$ diff dvd.md5  ../../../hdd/xaa_split/xbn_split/hdd.md5 |wc
    132     392   17960

========================================================================

Quite a big 'chunk' of the file suffered corruption.

$ diff dvd.md5  ../../../hdd/xaa_split/xbn_split/hdd.md5 | awk '{print $3}' | 
xargs -n1 ls  | xargs du -ach
520K    total

========================================================================

dvd$ md5sum one_part_with_corruption
c131c2f7dea3c316cbcd2c26360e4b03  one_part_with_corruption
hdd$ md5sum one_part_with_corruption
35968f907c5e6f986d9c5a171dd0a7ac  one_part_with_corruption

Taking an octal dump and checking the ASCII characters:

dvd:
< 0000000 034   å   â 201   f   ®   ç   ¹   e   D 221   Ê   Á  \b   ÷   $
< 0000020   >   p   M   | 212 236 034   Ø  \b   ÿ   z   å   í  \a   È   i
< 0000040 212 \f ç ] 200 l ª 234 Y 224 ³ é û ó Ì < 0000060 233 } G ä W : 236 b ° } 215 ) 224 R R ¸
< 0000100 237   ¨   ¾ 227   Ú   1   ¤   O   ç   ý 003 177   $   e 032   Á
< 0000120   !   ^   j   Þ 235   8   5   a   J   ¡   ö   <   Æ   H 223   Õ

hdd:
0000000  \r   Æ   ¦ 033 034   å   â 201   f   ®   ç   ¹   e   D 221   Ê
0000020   Á  \b   ÷   $   >   p   M   | 212 236 034   Ø  \b   ÿ   z   å
0000040   í  \a   È   i 212  \f   ç   ] 200   l   ª 234   Y 224   ³   é
0000060   û   ó   Ì     233   }   G   ä   W   : 236   b   °   } 215   )
0000100 224   R   R   ¸ 237   ¨   ¾ 227   Ú   1   ¤   O   ç   ý 003 177
0000120   $   e 032   Á   !   ^   j   Þ 235   8   5   a   J   ¡   ö   <

The hdd image seems 'shifted' see the following sequence: (201..f..R..c) on
the first line.

========================================================================

So the question then becomes where did the shift begin?  Way above we see
the initial error began on xaa (100M) -> xbn (1M)

dvd$ md5sum xbm
2524788769acf2b0f98346f488a58441  xbm
hdd$ md5sum xbm
2524788769acf2b0f98346f488a58441  xbm

So then we want to take an od of xbn and then diff that:

It starts at the following segment:

dvd:
< 2006000   û   r 222 235   ©   z   8   d 035   ´ 230   # 207   Í   õ   u

hdd:
2006000   û   r 222 235   û   r 222 235   ©   z   8   d 035   ´ 230   #

========================================================================

So let's look at it a few lines before as well:

dvd:
2005720   '   0   Ã 001   ò   »   [   ( 037 024   . 211   M 023 001   Ã
2005740   V 021   \   Ð   Y   Ç   Ö 207 206   ¬   n   ¬ 234   z   ¯ 034
2005760   ¿ 206 002   +   w   Î 200   Î   3   è   À   K   $   ê   e   n
2006000   û   r 222 235   ©   z   8   d 035   ´ 230   # 207   Í   õ   u
2006020   R   ¯   Í 025   Á   ¼ 022   ö 024   ¯ 200   Q 217   Ã   ¯   £
2006040 203   ­   ô   c   3   í 207   #   ]   Ä   ô   H   (   ý   5 207
2006060   ë   C   C   a   @  \r 200   Ü   â   ¡  \r 204 230   U   æ   O

hdd:
2005720   '   0   Ã 001   ò   »   [   ( 037 024   . 211   M 023 001   Ã
2005740   V 021   \   Ð   Y   Ç   Ö 207 206   ¬   n   ¬ 234   z   ¯ 034
2005760   ¿ 206 002   +   w   Î 200   Î   3   è   À   K   $   ê   e   n
2006000   û   r 222 235   û   r 222 235   ©   z   8   d 035   ´ 230   #
2006020 207   Í   õ   u   R   ¯   Í 025   Á   ¼ 022   ö 024   ¯ 200   Q
2006040 217   Ã   ¯   £ 203   ­   ô   c   3   í 207   #   ]   Ä   ô   H
2006060   (   ý   5 207   ë   C   C   a   @  \r 200   Ü   â   ¡  \r 204

The same sequence still seems to exist after the flip for the 5th character
on line 2006000.

========================================================================

On the linux-raid mailing list, this issue is often discussed:
http://www.mail-archive.com/linux-raid@xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx/msg07541.html

The solution seems to be repair and keep on trucking along, which is probably fine for a filesystem with hundreds/thousands of files, most likely, you would never notice the corruption. However, with gpg, the files obviously cannot suffer any corruption. It is only when I tried to extract the data did I notice this problem.

========================================================================

== server 1 (965 chipset) ==
Root filesystem (Raid-1):
Sat Nov 15 11:39:03 EST 2008: cat /sys/block/md2/md/mismatch_cnt
Sat Nov 15 11:39:03 EST 2008: 128

Storage array (Raid-6):
Wed Nov 26 10:14:21 EST 2008: cat /sys/block/md3/md/mismatch_cnt
Wed Nov 26 10:14:21 EST 2008: 1208

== server 2 (p35-chipset) ==
Swap (Raid-1): I understand this is 'normal' for swap:
Fri Jan 18 22:51:47 EST 2008: cat /sys/block/md0/md/mismatch_cnt
Fri Jan 18 22:51:47 EST 2008: 4096
Fri May 30 21:00:07 EDT 2008: cat /sys/block/md0/md/mismatch_cnt
Fri May 30 21:00:07 EDT 2008: 896
Fri Nov 14 23:30:10 EST 2008: cat /sys/block/md0/md/mismatch_cnt
Fri Nov 14 23:30:10 EST 2008: 384

== server 3 (also 965 chipset) ==
Root filesystem (Raid-1):
Fri May 18 20:50:05 EDT 2007: cat /sys/block/md2/md/mismatch_cnt
Fri May 18 20:50:05 EDT 2007: 128
Sat May 26 04:40:09 EDT 2007: cat /sys/block/md2/md/mismatch_cnt
Sat May 26 04:40:09 EDT 2007: 128

Swap (Raid-1): Again, normal but a very high mismatch_cnt:
Fri Oct  5 20:50:05 EDT 2007: cat /sys/block/md0/md/mismatch_cnt
Fri Oct  5 20:50:05 EDT 2007: 27904

Storage array (RAID-5)
Fri Apr  4 22:00:09 EDT 2008: cat /sys/block/md3/md/mismatch_cnt
Fri Apr  4 22:00:09 EDT 2008: 512
Fri May 23 22:00:10 EDT 2008: cat /sys/block/md3/md/mismatch_cnt
Fri May 23 22:00:10 EDT 2008: 256

== server 4 (intel 875 chipset, raid-5)
# grep mismatches\ found *
daemon.log:Jan  3 11:27:27 p26 mdadm: RebuildFinished event detected on md 
device /dev/md0, component device  mismatches found: 11896
daemon.log:Nov 14 12:25:59 p26 mdadm[1956]: RebuildFinished event detected on 
md device /dev/md0, component device  mismatches found: 11664
daemon.log:Nov 14 18:19:01 p26 mdadm[1956]: RebuildFinished event detected on 
md device /dev/md0, component device  mismatches found: 11664
syslog:Jan  3 11:27:27 p26 mdadm: RebuildFinished event detected on md device 
/dev/md0, component device  mismatches found: 11896
syslog:Nov 14 12:25:59 p26 mdadm[1956]: RebuildFinished event detected on md 
device /dev/md0, component device  mismatches found: 11664
syslog:Nov 14 18:19:01 p26 mdadm[1956]: RebuildFinished event detected on md 
device /dev/md0, component device  mismatches found: 11664

========================================================================

Options/alternatives for maintaining data integrity?

1. Obviously DVD and/or LTO-tape (multiple copies of data at rest)
http://epoka.dk/media/Linear_Tape_Open_(LTO)_Ultrium_Data_Cartridges.pdf
-> For LTO-2/LTO-3
-> Uncorrected bit error rate 1x10-17 1x10-17
-> Undetected bit error rate 1x10-27 1x10-27

2. ZFS, but only runs in user-space in Linux.

3. Keep an md5sum for each file on the filesystem and run daily checks?

========================================================================

Other options?

How do others maintain data integrity?  Just not worry about it until you have
to, rely on backups.. or?

Justin.
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